Pragmas

Idris2 supports a number of pragmas (identifiable by the % prefix). Some pragmas change compiler behavior until the behavior is changed back using the same pragma while others apply to the following declaration. A small niche of pragmas apply directly to one or more arguments instead of the code following the pragma (like the %name pragma described below).

Note

This page is a work in progress. If you know about a pragma that is not described yet, please consider submitting a pull request!

Global pragmas

%language

Enable language extensions. Currently, the only extension is [1].

%language ElabReflection

%default

Set the default totality requirement for functions, which can be one of total, covering, or partial. The value is initially set to covering unless the --total command line switch is used, which sets it to total.

%builtin

The %builtin Natural pragma converts recursive/unary representations of natural numbers into primitive Integer representations.

This pragma is explained in detail on its own page. For more, see Builtins.

%name

Give the compiler some suggested names to use for a particular type when it is asked to generate names for values. You can specify any number of suggested names; they will be used in-order when more than one is needed for a single definition.

data Foo = X | Y

%name Foo foo,bar

%ambiguity_depth

Set how deep nested ambiguous names can be before Idris gives up. The default is 3, increashing this will effect compiler performance. For more details, see Ambiguous Name Resolution.

%auto_implicit_depth

Set the search depth for auto implicits. The default value is 50.

%logging

Change the logging level. See Logging for details.

%logging 1
%logging "elab" 5

%prefix_record_projections

Configure whether projection functions without a leading period are generated for records. It defaults to on. See Record elaboration for more details.

%transform

Replace a function at runtime with another implementation. It allows us to functions that are appropriate for type checking and have an efficient version at runtime. For example:

plus : Nat -> Nat -> Nat
plus Z y = y
plus (S x) y = S $ plus x y

%transform "plus" plus j k = integerToNat (natToInteger j + natToInteger j)

%unbound_implicits

Configure whether implicit bindings are automatically added to function types for unbound lowercase names. It is on by default. See Unbound Implicits for more details.

%auto_lazy

Configure whether the compiler automatically adds delay and force when necessary. It defaults to on.

%search_timeout

Set the expression search timeout in milliseconds. The default is 1000.

%search_timeout 1000

%nf_metavar_threshold

Set the maximum number of stuck applications allowed while unifying a meta. The default value is 25.

%cg

Codegen directives can be included in source code with the %cg pragma. For example, instead of using --directive extraRuntime=mycode.ss on the command line for the chez backend, you can write:

%cg chez extraRuntime=mycode.ss

The %cg pragma is followed by the name of a codegen and a directive for that codegen, terminated by newline. Directives from imported modules, including transitive imports, will aggregate. All of the directives given in the source are stored in the module, but only the directives for the current codegen are used at link time.

How directives are treated in aggregate depends on the codegen and directive. For example, the extraRuntime directive for the Chez codegen is deduplicated. And the javascript backend gives the minimal directive priority over the compact directive if both are present.

See the section for each codegen under Compiling to Executables for available directives.

Pragmas on declarations

%deprecate

Mark the following definition as deprecated. Whenever the function is used, Idris will show a deprecation warning.

%deprecate
foo : String -> String
foo x = x ++ "!"

bar : String
bar = foo "hello"
Warning: Deprecation warning: Man.foo is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.

You can use code documentation (triple vertical bar ||| docs) to suggest a strategy for removing the deprecated function call and that documentation will be displayed alongside the warning.

||| Please use the @altFoo@ function from now on.
%deprecate
foo : String -> String
foo x = x ++ "!"

bar : String
bar = foo "hello"
Warning: Deprecation warning: Man.foo is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
  Please use the @altFoo@ function from now on.

%inline

Instruct the compiler to inline the following definition when it is applied. It is generally best to let the compiler and the backend you are using optimise code based on its predetermined rules, but if you want to force a function to be inlined when it is called, this pragma will force it.

%inline
foo : String -> String
foo x = x ++ "!"

%noinline

Instruct the compiler _not_ to inline the following definition when it is applied. It is generally best to let the compiler and the backend you are using optimise code based on its predetermined rules, but if you want to force a function to never be inlined when it is called, this pragma will force it.

%noinline
foo : String -> String
foo x = x ++ "!"

%tcinline

Instruct the compiler to inline the function during totality checking.

%hide

Hide a definition from imports. This is particularly useful when you are re-definiing functions or types from a module but still need to import it.

module MyNat

%hide Prelude.Nat
%hide Prelude.S
%hide Prelude.Nat

data Nat = Z | S Nat

You can also hide fixity declarations if you need to redefine your own.

module MyNat

%hide Prelude.Ops.infixl.(+)

infixr 5 +

%unhide

The %unhide pragma unhides a definition that was previously hidden with %hide.

%unsafe

Mark a function like believe_me as being unsafe. The function will be semantically highlighted in a different color to draw the user’s attention to its use.

%spec

Specialise a function according to a list of arguments.

%spec a
identity : List a -> List a
identity [] = []
identity (x :: xs) = x :: identity xs

%foreign

Declare a foreign function. It is followed by an indented block of expressions that evaluate to strings. See FFI Overview for more details.

%foreign_impl

Adds an implementation to an existing %foreign in another file. This pragma can be used to fill in an implementation for another backend without changing the original file. In the case of multiple declarations for a given backend, the backend will choose the one from the most recently loaded module.

%foreign_impl Prelude.IO.prim__fork "javascript:lambda:(proc) => { throw new Error() }"

%export

Export an Idris function to the underlying host language. The the name for each backend is given in an indented block of string expressions, similar to %foreign. Currently this pragma is only supported by the javascript backend.

%export "javascript:addNat"
addNat : Nat -> Nat -> Nat
addNat a b = a + b

%nomangle

This pragma is deprecated. Instead use %export to expose functions to the backend.

%hint

Mark a function to be used for auto search (see auto-implicits and Interfaces and Auto implicit arguments for more). Hints are used internally for instance resolution and non-named instances are automatically tagged with %hint.

%defaulthint

Mark a hint to be tried when no other hints match.

%globalhint

A global hint is like a %hint, but it is always tried, while %hint is only tried if the return type matches.

%extern

Declare a function to be externally implemented, but relies on codegen to fill in the function rather than specifying the name. The function name must be explicitly handled in the codegen. It is used for functions like prim__newIORef in the prelude.

%macro

Mark a function that returns the Elab monad as a macro. When the function is used in an expression, it will be run at compile time and the invocation will be replaced by the result of the elaboration.

%start

The %start pragma is not implemented.

%allow_overloads

This pragma is no longer used by the compiler.

Internal

These pragmas are used in the prelude, but aren’t typically used in user programs.

%rewrite

Specify the Equal type and rewrite function used by rewrite statements.

%rewrite Equal rewrite__impl

%pair

This directive is used in the prelude to tell auto implicit search what to use to look inside pairs.

%pair Pair fst snd

%integerLit

Define the function used to interpret literal integers. In the prelude, it is set to fromInteger, so a literal 2 is elaborated to fromInteger 2.

%integerLit fromInteger

%stringLit

Define the function used to interpret literal strings. In the prelude, it is set to fromString, so a literal "idris" is elaborated to fromString "idris".

%stringLit fromString

%charLit

Define the function used to interpret literal characters. In the prelude, it is set to fromChar, so a literal `x`` is elaborated to fromChar 'x'.

%charLit fromChar

%doubleLit

Define the function used to interpret literal numbers with a decimal in them. In the prelude, it is set to fromDouble, so a literal `2.0`` is elaborated to fromDouble 2.0.

%charLit fromDouble

Reflection Literals

%TTImpLit

Allow quoted expressions to be cast to a user defined type.

%TTImpLit fromTTImp

public export
data NatExpr : Type where
     Plus : NatExpr -> NatExpr -> NatExpr
     Mult : NatExpr -> NatExpr -> NatExpr
     Val : Nat -> NatExpr
     Var : String -> NatExpr

public export
natExpr : TTImp -> Elab NatExpr
natExpr `(~(l) + ~(r)) = [| Plus (natExpr l) (natExpr r) |]
natExpr `(~(l) * ~(r)) = [| Mult (natExpr l) (natExpr r) |]
natExpr `(fromInteger ~(IPrimVal _ (BI n))) = pure $ Val $ fromInteger n
natExpr (IVar _ (UN (Basic nm))) = pure $ Var nm
natExpr s = failAt (getFC s) "Invalid NatExpr"

%macro
fromTTImp : TTImp -> Elab NatExpr
fromTTImp = natExpr

export
natExprMacroTest : NatExpr
natExprMacroTest = `(1 + 2 + x)

%declsLit

Allow quoted declarations to be cast to user defined types.

%nameLit

Allow quoted names to be cast to user defined types.

Expressions

Pragmas that occur inside expressions.

%runElab

The %runElab pragma can be used at the top level or as an expression. It takes an elaborator script as an argument which runs in the Elab monad, has access to Idris’ type-checking machinery, and can generate code.

%World

The type of the world token used for IO. For more information, see World.

%MkWorld

The world token used for IO. For more information, see World.

%syntactic

The %syntactic pragma can appear after the with keyword. It abstracts over the value syntactically, rather than by value, and can significantly speed up elaboration where large types are involved, at a cost of being less general. Try it if “with” is slow.